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A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change

— sector: Agriculture, Conservation and biodiversity, Forestry and natural resource management
— theme: Environment and climate
— country: Global
— type: Statistics

A meta-analytic synthesis of studies of the effect of species loss indicate that the negative effects of such loss on the environment are of similar magnitude to other global environmental stressors such as climate warming and acidification. Effects include loss of plant production, productivity and decomposition. This research should renew work to create jobs that address species loss and the building of green cooridoors. It is also of interest to economic sectors that rely on the fertility of land.

A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change

Effects of species loss on primary production from 62 studies (379 observations). Thick red line, lower productivity as species richness decreases; grey bands and black error bars, 95% confidence intervals.

David U. Hooper et al.
Publishing Year

Evidence is mounting that extinctions are altering key processes important to the productivity and sustainability of Earth’s ecosystems1, 2, 3, 4. Further species loss will accelerate change in ecosystem processes5, 6, 7, 8, but it is unclear how these effects compare to the direct effects of other forms of environmental change that are both driving diversity loss and altering ecosystem function. Here we use a suite of meta-analyses of published data to show that the effects of species loss on productivity and decomposition—two processes important in all ecosystems—are of comparable magnitude to the effects of many other global environmental changes. In experiments, intermediate levels of species loss (21–40%) reduced plant production by 5–10%, comparable to previously documented effects of ultraviolet radiation and climate warming. Higher levels of extinction (41–60%) had effects rivalling those of ozone, acidification, elevated CO2 and nutrient pollution. At intermediate levels, species loss generally had equal or greater effects on decomposition than did elevated CO2 and nitrogen addition. The identity of species lost also had a large effect on changes in productivity and decomposition, generating a wide range of plausible outcomes for extinction. Despite the need for more studies on interactive effects of diversity loss and environmental changes, our analyses clearly show that the ecosystem consequences of local species loss are as quantitatively significant as the direct effects of several global change stressors that have mobilized major international concern and remediation efforts9.

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